When you go online and play a video game, does it really matter if it’s a real-world game or a movie?
A new study from Oxford University has revealed that many people who play video games are still paying for content they find online.
The study by researchers from Oxford and Bristol Universities revealed that only one in five people playing online video games bought actual games.
The same proportion of people who played games on mobile phones were not buying games.
In addition, only one-third of people buying games on a smartphone bought the game as a physical item.
This was compared to two-thirds of people in real life who said they bought physical products.
The research, which was published in the Journal of Consumer Research, was carried out by a team led by Dr Ian Bremner, the Professor of Digital Media and Games at Oxford.
It found that people who are likely to be casual gamers were not interested in buying physical products, but instead relied on online shopping for virtual items.
The researchers say this is because many people find online games to be “easy and cheap” and therefore they buy the virtual items for “value”.
But the researchers say the lack of real-life purchases is partly due to a lack of knowledge about the games.
“We don’t know how people are playing these games, how they’re spending their money, and so the way they’re buying games is very different,” said Dr Bremners team leader Professor Richard Hines.
“So the real question is: How can we make sure that there’s value in this?”
Dr Breslner’s team said the lack a real life purchase was partly due not only to the fact that most people are likely not to pay for physical products in real-time, but also because online games tend to be free.
“Many of these games are very simple, very inexpensive to get into and play, and therefore people do it without much thought,” Dr Breshner said.
“And that is the sort of thing that makes it so easy to buy.”
Dr Brems research is part of a wider research project on online games and the impact they have on the digital economy, funded by the Wellcome Trust.
Professor Bremers research was conducted with Dr Paul Wetherby, the Director of the Centre for Interactive Digital Games and Game Theory at Oxford, and Professor Simon Hickey from the University of Bristol.
Dr Brestner’s work has been funded by a UK Innovation Fund, the Wellesley Technology Innovation Fund and the National Institutes of Health.
A copy of the study can be downloaded here.
The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect Al Jazeera’s editorial policy.
The National Review has published a piece that, as expected, makes it clear that the Obama administration is planning to use the Exchange Access Server (EAS) as a central server for its National Security Agency surveillance programs.
The goal is to use a single server, but the NSC has indicated that this will be done using a “centralized architecture.”
In a blog post on Thursday, NSC Director Michael Daniel wrote that, “We will use EAS to store and operate our highly classified national security information.”
The agency is building a new central server, it wrote, that will be “large enough to store all of our classified information, including the vast majority of the content of our NSA and CIA electronic surveillance records.”
This new central data center is “expected to be operational in 2020.”
The NSC also said that the central server will be a “secure” and that “the new central servers will be designed to be self-contained.”
The new central facility will “provide redundancy to all the servers on the network” and will be able to store data “within reasonable limits.”
Daniel wrote, “Our goal is that the EAS central server can provide as much security as is currently provided by the existing, centrally managed servers.”
The central server is expected to store the “most sensitive, high-value intelligence data” and also “will store all classified documents.”
This central server “will also be designed with encryption capabilities that are equivalent to those offered by today’s most advanced encryption tools.”
These capabilities include “cryptographic primitives, algorithms, and hardware, as well as advanced software and hardware support for encrypted email, VoIP, video conferencing, and other communications.”
Daniel also wrote that the new central center “will be equipped with highly secure physical servers, as needed, to ensure that the data stored on the EAST server is only accessible to authorized personnel.”
A new “central” server, of course, means that the NSA will be using the same servers that are currently used by the NSA to store its secret surveillance programs, and not the “central server” described in the NSS report.
This new “server” will be run by the CIA, which is “part of the NSA’s global Intelligence Community” that “is charged with securing America’s national security and protecting the nation’s cyber infrastructure.”
This new server will also have a “unique security profile.”
It will be located “within the complex network of secure servers that comprise the NSA network,” the NBS report explained.
The central server has also been described as a “critical infrastructure” that will “support the NSA and its mission to gather and store vast amounts of information on every aspect of our lives, including personal data.”
It has been “invented to support NSA’s mission to keep Americans safe, protect the privacy of Americans, and advance America’s leadership in cyber, intelligence, and space.”
One of the new servers is being built in the United Kingdom, according to the NSP report.
A number of NSA analysts will be working at the “NSA Center for Data Center Design” in the UK, according the report.
The “NSA Central Data Center will be the center of the agency’s world-class data center design, and will support all NSA data centers, including those in Europe, Asia, and Latin America.”
This is the “largest single data center project in NSA history.”
Another central server was also planned for the UK.
This one will be used by “a worldwide collection of NSA data.”
NSA analysts in the Netherlands and Germany are also expected to be using servers located in the “National Security Agency data center” in Amsterdam.
The NSS also indicated that the US is “likely to continue using this central data hub,” even though the NSA has been accused of being complicit in the NSA program.
In the NDSB report, it noted that “there is a consensus among analysts that there are substantial vulnerabilities in the ESS core technology, as compared to EAS.”
In other words, the “EAS central data storage infrastructure” will “likely be compromised,” because it’s not secure enough.
As we’ve seen in the past, the NSA is using the NCS, not the ECS, as the central storage for its vast surveillance program.
In the NPS report, the NMS, the National Security Administration’s intelligence unit, was cited as saying that the NNSA is using “ESS” and “the NSS” interchangeably.
“The NPS has made a number of assessments in the recent past about the risks posed by the use of ESS in the storage of NSA and NSS data,” the report said.
This is what NSS Director Mike Pompeo told reporters in January: “If we’re going to use ESS, we should have it in the central data location,” he said.
“And, if we’re not going to